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Version: v1.1

Creating scenarios


All the examples assume that you have installed the iptables parser, and that your iptables configuration logs dropped packets.

Leaky bucket#

In this example, we will write a simple scenario based on a leaky bucket that will trigger if an IP tries to port scan our machine.

We'll start with the most basic scenario:

type: leakydebug: truename: demo/leaky-exampledescription: "detect cool stuff"filter: evt.Meta.log_type == 'iptables_drop'capacity: 1leakspeed: 1mblackhole: 1mlabels:  type: scan

We define:

  • A filter: an expression that decides if the scenario will apply to current event or not
  • A type: here, we have a leaky bucket
  • A capacity: how many events can be poured in the bucket before it overflows
  • A leakspeed: the speed at which events are removed from the bucket
  • A blackhole: duration for which the bucket should be overflow again
  • Some labels to qualify the event

This scenario in its current state is not really useful:

  • We do not define a groupby: the same bucket will be used for all source IP, which prevent us to ban the IP actually doing the port scan.
  • Our filter is too generic: we also match dropped UDP packets, and it can be very dangerous to apply a decision on them.

Let's fix that !

type: leakydebug: truename: demo/leaky-exampledescription: "detect cool stuff"filter: "evt.Meta.log_type == 'iptables_drop' and evt.Parsed.proto == 'TCP'"groupby: evt.Meta.source_ipcapacity: 15leakspeed: 1mblackhole: 1mlabels: type: scan

We added:

  • A new filter, and evt.Parsed.proto == 'TCP': our scenario will now only apply if the protocol is TCP (based on what was extracted from the log line by our GROK pattern)

  • A groupby parameter: we now create one bucket per source ip

  • We also updated the capacity and leakspeed to be more useful for a real life scenario.

    But this is still not perfect ! We want to create a scenario to detect port scan, but our current configuration will also detect repeated connections to the same port.

    We can fix this by adding a distinct parameter:

type: leakydebug: truename: demo/leaky-exampledescription: "detect cool stuff"filter: "evt.Meta.log_type == 'iptables_drop' and evt.Parsed.proto == 'TCP'"groupby: evt.Meta.source_ipdistinct: evt.Parsed.dst_portcapacity: 15leakspeed: 1mblackhole: 1mlabels:  type: scan

The distinct parameter will prevent an event to be poured into the bucket if there is already an event in it with the same value for evt.Parsed.dst_port.

In our case, this means that we will only have unique ports in our bucket.

And voila ! We now have a working scenario able to detect port scanning.

Trigger bucket#

In this example, we will write a simple scenario that will trigger if anyone sends a packet to the port 3389.

type: triggername: demo/trigger-exampledescription: "Detect connection to RDP port"filter: "evt.Meta.log_type == 'iptables_drop' and evt.Parsed.proto == 'TCP' and evt.Parsed.dst_port == '3389'"groupby: evt.Meta.source_ipblackhole: 2mlabels: service: rdp type: scan remediation: true

What changed in comparaison to our leaky example ?

  • We defined the type to be trigger: this means that the bucket will overflow if any event is poured into it
  • Our filter checks if the value of dst_port is equal to 3389: you can access all capture group defined in a GROK pattern with the object evt.Parsed
  • We set the remediation label to true: if the bucket overflow, we will apply a remediation based on your profile configuration (by default, 4h ban)

Let's try it !

Put the scenario in a file called iptables-rdp.yaml, in the scenarios folder of crowdsec.

Use cscli to make sure the scenario is detected:

$ cscli scenarios list                    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- NAME                                     ๐Ÿ“ฆ STATUS          VERSION  LOCAL PATH                                                                                                              ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- iptables-rdp.yaml                        ๐Ÿ   enabled,local           /etc/crowdsec/scenarios/iptables-rdp.yaml                                 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Next, we will trigger the scenario by attempting to connect to the port 3389 on the machine where crowdsec is running:

$ nc -v 3389nc: connect to port 3389 (tcp) failed: Connection refused 

In our kernel logs, we can see:

Aug 20 16:20:09 mantis kernel: [887475.435839] DROP: IN=lo OUT= MAC=00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:08:00 SRC= DST= LEN=60 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=29037 DF PROTO=TCP SPT=39158 DPT=3389 WINDOW=65495 RES=0x00 SYN URGP=0 

We can then check that a decision has been applied:

$ cscli decisions list+-------+----------+-----------------+----------------------+--------+---------+----+--------+------------------+----------+|  ID   |  SOURCE  |   SCOPE:VALUE   |        REASON        | ACTION | COUNTRY | AS | EVENTS |    EXPIRATION    | ALERT ID |+-------+----------+-----------------+----------------------+--------+---------+----+--------+------------------+----------+| 17563 | crowdsec | Ip: | demo/trigger-example | ban    |         |    |      1 | 3h59m5.00140614s |       82 |+-------+----------+-----------------+----------------------+--------+---------+----+--------+------------------+----------+